Vortex technologies

About vortex technology in short

Vortex technology is a new technological direction in science and industry based on noncontact gas-dynamic resonant disintegration (micronization) of materials in which compressed air, gases, critical vapors, liquid can act as a carrier of energy.

The newest effective technology was created in 2014 and was the result of technological convergence of various fields of knowledge. Vortex technology has opened the widest opportunities in various industries and has led to the creation of new promising technologies and directions.
In addition to the theoretical, scientific and technical justification of this technology, the main developers of which were scientists and engineers in group of companies, methods were developed with a wide applied value - from disintegration, activation, mechanochemical synthesis of materials, to complex processing of mineral raw materials, technogenic accumulations, bio- and phytomass.


One of the most common ways of processing materials is grinding them. Practically there is no such branch of industry where grinding of initial raw materials is not required.

This is the mining industry, metallurgy, industrial 3D printing and biotechnology, as well as the processing of man-made savings and agricultural and industrial waste. But the mechanical methods of grinding materials have almost reached their limits. Modern industry requires new industrial methods of grinding materials and their micronisation, down to nanometers, because with insufficient grinding it is very difficult to extract valuable materials that are in a bound state (which, accordingly, leads to high losses).
The main direction in the development of processes and apparatuses of grinding in many industries was aimed at intensification of physicochemical transformations in turbulent, cavitation, vortex, film and jet small devices with the output of the main product at the level of submicron homogeneous suspensions, emulsions and powders. Vortex technology, and based on vortex (gas-dynamic) resonance processes, is one of the most modern and progressive technologies to date. It is effective not only in terms of productivity and cost (above all, energy costs), but also allows radically improve adjacent and other technologies, create new materials, that is, something that can not be achieved by traditional methods.

The TORNADO resonance-vortex installation is a gas-dynamic shredder, in which a cascade adiabatic-resonance-shock grinding is implemented at speeds of collisions close to the destruction threshold. The process is designed in such a way so that any particle of the input material gets literally torn by the repeated crossing of the differential pressure zones in the intervortex vacuum chamber, which produces ultrahigh gradient (pressure drops) at the interface (up to hundreds of thousands atmospheres). When the material is injected into such area of pressure differential, a rupture of the material’s structure and clusters occurs. Such mechanism can be compared to the mechanism of material’s sample destruction, which is done in order to determine its strength characteristics at tensile test plants. That is, grinding is made not due to frictional force, etc., mechanics, but arbitrarily "air" and resonances, which gives the highest productivity, the speed of raw material flows and efficiency with low cost and energy costs (no rubbing parts).

We can use as an energy carrier (working medium of a shredder):
- air supplied under pressure (compressor, turbine)
- any inert gas fed under pressure, for example, argon
- high-pressure steam (superheated steam)
- energy gas produced by a free piston engine, supercritical carriers (fluids), for example, (CO2)
In the resonant-vortex shredder "Tornado", a new technology of non-contact grinding of materials is used, according to which the grinding processes are carried out due to air tornadoes, artificially created in a closed volume of the process chamber of the vortex shredder.
The "Tornado” equipment , created on the basis of technology of resonant-vortex grinding, allows to grind any material - from liquids, wheat grain to diamond. The effect of the destruction of materials of any hardness is due to the creation in the vortex chopper of zones with a pressure gradient of up to hundreds of thousands of atmospheres, a multistage resonance, and collision of particles. These phenomena are analogous to those that arise in the air of a tornado pillar created by nature.

The second (resonance) grinding mechanism is associated with the generation in the shredder of wave oscillations with a range of frequencies from sonic to hypersonic (100 MHz and higher). In such a wide range of oscillations, for particles of material to be grinded of any size, there is a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the particle. This mechanism is capable of grinding up to superfine fractions, measured in hundredths and thousandths of a micron (0.01-0.001 microns).
The third (impact) mechanism of material grinding is the mutual collision of particles. In resonant-vortex grinders, the impact of particles makes an insignificant contribution to the process of material destruction. In today's widely used torsion (jet) mills (for example, Japanese production), this mechanism is the mainly used, but it is inferior in efficiency and capabilities in.

The jet mills are not analogous to gas-dynamic vortex mills and have a specific power consumption of about 20-70 kWh / ton of crushed raw material, which is comparable to the analogous indicator (according to the manufacturer's data) of the Tornado-30-75 kWh / t mill at the same ton of grind. But it is necessary to take into account that the costs of 75 kW / h are set in the directories from the capacity of the compressor Keizer (Germany) with the capacity of 11-13 cube / minute at a pressure of 9-11 bar (modes).

In fact, this power is enough for 2 Tornado installations with a working chamber of 350 mm, since the actual consumption is 6 cubic meters per minute per 1 chamber at a pressure of 6 bar. Thus, the installed capacity of this compressor can simultaneously operate 2 Tornado units or alternately up to 4 units. In addition to all - 75 kW * h - the maximum mode when air is pumped into the receivers (in Prague there are 2 of them), which makes it possible to operate in economical modes in synchronism with the dispenser, when the compressor only works for pumping receivers and spends only 15-25 kW for this * h. The productivity of jet mills ranges from 50 kg / h to 1.5 t / h. The performance of the Tornado gas-dynamic vortex mill is 100 kg / h (diamonds) up to 3 t / h (biomass) with a working chamber of 350 mm.

An exception to the performance are steam-jet mills that work on coal and cement. Their productivity can be 10 t / h or more, but for the purposes of ultra-fine dry grinding they are not suitable. Tornado settings are scalable, all data in presentations and on the site are given for a typical installation with a working chamber of 350 mm, and if necessary the working chamber can be increased to 750 mm or up to 1000 mm, which drastically leads to increased air consumption. For example, a 750 mm camera requires 35-40 cubic meters per minute, which should be determined by the specifics of the material and the need. In many cases, it is cheaper to equip one Tornado unit with 2-3-4 working chambers for the type of a single Keizer compressor and a homogeneous material, or for purposes (rocks) to produce two-three-stage installations where each resonance chamber performs its tasks.

If for torsion (jet) grinders the use of compressed air is typical at pressures of 0.7-1.4 MPa, then with the shredder "Tornado”, a similar effect is achieved at 0.2-0.6 MPa, which significantly reduces costs and allows obtaining extremely fine powders that can not be obtained with other methods.

In addition, due to adiabatic expansion, there is a decrease in the temperature of the working medium in the Tornado working chamber, which makes it possible to avoid local heating and thermal destruction of the material that is ground.

Tornado shredder chamber does not contain rotating and rubbing parts, which significantly increases its service life, simplifies its design, facilitates maintenance and cleaning when changing the input material for grinding, and avoids the foreign impurities in the finished product.