WATER – AN AREA REQUIRED TO BE RESEARCHED

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Vasyl Hulyi,

personal correspondent

of the magazine “OBJECTIVE” of the European Union.

Kiev-Prague-Larnaca

27.06. 2016

What do we know about the water from the school program? Н2O, water is a good solvent, transparent, colorless, odorless, takes any shape of the vessel where it is poured, can freeze and can evaporate …

The most advanced will remember that the molecule of water is bipolar, that it consists of 80% of oxygen and 20% of hydrogen. Let’s try to look at this substance from other angles and get into the properties of water, as well as understand some modern scientific and technological aspects of water.

 

Properties of water

Let’s start with the properties of water. Water – a unique solvent, it dissolves a variety of substances, that is why natural water containes many salts. The more salts, the more salinity of water, the heavier it is. Natural water contains a huge number of micro- and macro elements, including precious and rare metals. For example, a ton of sea water can contain up to 1 gram of gold.

The greater concentration of salts in the water is located on the bottom. This allows organisms in the ocean to live precisely in such conditions as they live.

Thus, water is a good solvent. Each molecule of the dissolved substance is surrounded by water molecules, and positively charged parts of the molecule of solute attract oxygen atoms, and negatively charged – atoms of hydrogen. Since the water molecule is small in size, many water molecules can surround each molecule of the solute. This property of water is used by living beings. In a living cell and in the intercellular space, solutions of various substances in water interact. Water is necessary for the life of all, without exception, unicellular and multicellular living beings on Earth.

But no less important is the positive property that not everything is dissolved in it. For example, fats are insoluble. Perhaps this is an even more fundamental property, since only due to the non-dissolution of fats in the water, cell membranes and life itself can exist.

Surprisingly, for all substances on earth, the solid phase is heavier than liquid, but ice is lighter than water in its normal state. In addition, the most important property of water is that it can evaporate not only when boiling, otherwise the water cycle in nature would not be possible.

REFERENCE
Physical properties of water:
Condition (st.w.) : liquid statestate
Density: 0.9982 g / cc (cubic centimeter)
Dinamic viscosity (st.cond.) : 0.00101 Pa • s (at 20 ° C)
Cinematic viscosity (st.cond.) : 0.01012 cm2 / s (at 20 ° C)
Thermal properties of water:
Melt temperature: 0°C
Boiling temperature: 99,974°C
Triple point: 0,01 °C, 611,73 Pa
Critical point: 374°C, 22,064 MPa
Molar heat capacity(st. cond.): 75,37 j/(mol•K)
The thermal conductivity of(st. cond.): 0.56 W/(m•K)
The state of aggregation of water:
Solid – ice
Liquid – water.
Gaseous – water vapor.

For the whole planet and for industry, the property of heat absorption is important: the water is relatively slowly heated and relatively slowly cools. This property protects the Earth and all life from overheating.

A characteristic property is the hardness of water and its alkaline balance. In the world practice, several units of stiffness measurement are used, all of them in a certain way correlate with each other. In Russia, the government standart set a mole per cubic meter (mol / m3) as a unit of water hardness. In Ukraine, both moles / m3 and mg-equiv / l (milligram equivalent per liter) are used. Numerically, these values coincide. By the way, l and dm3 are the same, liter and cubic decimeter. In addition, in various countries such hardness units as German degrees (do, dH), French degrees (fo), American degrees, ppm CaCO3. are widely used. Water hardness varies widely and there are many types of water classification according to the degree of its rigidity. Typically, hardness (up to 70% -80%) is predominant in low-mineralized waters, due to calcium ions (although in some rare cases magnesium stiffness can reach 50-60%). With an increase in the degree of mineralization of water, the content of calcium ions (Са2+)  decreases rapidly and rarely exceeds 1 g / l. The content of magnesium ions (Mg2+) in highly mineralized waters can reach several grams, and in salt lakes – tens of grams per liter of water.

“Hydrogen” (pH) characterizes the relative amount of free hydrogen ions in water (H +). Since H + is measured, it is written as рН (if ОН is measured, then it is written as рОН). If the pH of the water is less than 7, then the water is considered as acidic. If the pH is greater than 7, then the water is considered as alkaline.

The electrical conductivity of natural water depends mainly on the degree of mineralization (concentration of dissolved mineral salts) and temperature – the property of electrical conductivity. In comparison with other liquids, water has the highest electrical resistance. In an aqueous medium, the force of attraction of electrified particles to each other is rather weak, therefore ionized salt particles are perfectly soluble in water, although most of these salts have a weak solubility in organic liquids.

Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is also important for the study of water properties.

“The surface tension” of water is greater than that of any other liquid. It is this property that affects the process of the formation of raindrops, and, consequently, the cycle of water in nature. Otherwise, steams of water, rising to the sky and turning into clouds, could not so easily and simply turn into droplets, then to rain to the ground.

“Another amazing property of water” is as follows. In one group with oxygen in the periodic system of chemical elements are sulfur (S), selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te). Nevertheless, the compounds of these elements with hydrogen do not even closely resemble water. For example, hydrogen sulphide – H2S  – is a gas with an unpleasant odor of rotten eggs. And other compounds under normal conditions are in a gaseous state. Their molecules are heavier than a water molecule: H2S has a molecular weight of – 34, у H2Sе – 81, у H2Те – 130. Water has a molecular weight of 18, not gas, but liquid.

All these features are related to the presence of hydrogen bonds. Because of the large difference in the electronegativities of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms, the electron clouds are strongly biased towards oxygen. Because of this, and also the fact that the hydrogen ion does not has internal electronic layers and has small dimensions, it can penetrate into the electron shell of the negatively polarized atom of the neighboring molecule. Due to this, each oxygen atom is attracted to the hydrogen atoms of other molecules and vice versa. Each molecule of water can participate in a maximum of four hydrogen bonds: 2 hydrogen atoms – each in one, and the oxygen atom in two; in this state the molecules are in an ice crystal. With the melting of ice, some of the bonds are broken, which makes it possible to lay the water molecules denser; when the water is heated, the bonds continue to break, and its density increases, but at temperatures above 4 ° C this effect becomes weaker than thermal expansion. When evaporation breaks all the remaining links. The breaking of bonds requires a lot of energy, hence the high temperature and specific heat of melting and boiling and high heat capacity. The viscosity of water is due to the fact that hydrogen bonds prevent water molecules from moving at different rates.

The unique properties of water can be learned from the cognitive film “Water. A new dimension »(https: //www.youtube.com/watch? V = kYjO68s9VgM ).

Even based on the incomplete list of properties of water, we can conclude that this is a complex substance that has long attracted the attention of scientists and has been thoroughly worked on over the last decade in connection with the emerging new instrumental and hardware capabilities and knowledge gained.

Where the water leads, or the possible sources of life

With the development of nanotechnology, scientists have become interested in the behavior of water in carbon nanostructures – nanotubes and fullerenes.

Even in 2001, scientists from the University of Maine (University of Maine, Orono, USA) produced nanotubes and placed them in disciplined water. The effect was amazing. Water penetrated, in fact, a water-repellent carbon structure and showed a pulsation as it passed: up to 30 molecules in the flow per nanosecond. When the nanotube passed through, the water molecules formed a chain of five molecules, that is, water rebuilt its cluster structure.

Later physicist George Reiter and his team showed that in special cases, water can pass into an amazing form of “quantum water. ” To understand what this form is, we recall that the hydrogen bond is formed between the oxygen of one molecule of water and the hydrogen of two neighboring ones. Electrons, “drawn” by oxygen at their hydrogen atoms, are partially attracted by the hydrogen of neighboring molecules. They can with some freedom move between the participants of such interaction. And if you find a way to build long chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules of water, electrons can even move through them at noticeable distances. What properties will such water acquire?  Trying to figure this out, Reuters and colleagues filled the tiny hollow space inside the carbon nanotube with water and explored its characteristics, bombarded with an intense neutron beam. The parameters of the reflected particles allowed scientists to characterize the behavior of protons in water molecules inside nanotubes. It turned out that even at the same room temperature, this behavior strikingly differs from the usual state of water. “The differences are so great,” says the authors of the work, “that we are entitled to say that the water enclosed in the nanotubes passes into a qualitatively different” quantum “state.” Water-filled nanotubes can serve as a model of how things stand in a number of living systems-for example, in ion channels of cell membranes. It has long been shown that the flow through these channels is several orders of magnitude greater than the theory allows. Perhaps the fault is precisely the unusual state of water, which is still unknown. Compression of water inside the nanotube leads to a quasi-one-dimensional, supercritical state. And at a temperature of 2690 С, water acquires superfluidity.

The smooth and water-repellent structure of carbon nanotubes makes the filter based on this technology very efficient, allowing large masses of water to pass without blockage. It is important that the power that is required to flow water through such a system will be significantly less compared to conventional membrane technology. The very first application that comes to mind, considering the unique chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the behavior of water in them, is the purification of water. CNTs allow very small molecules of water to seep through them, while viruses, bacteria, toxic metal ions and poisonous organic molecules can not do this. Maybe that’s why the filters from natural schungite, containing another form of carbon nanostructure – fullerene, are so active in water purification and have good sorption abilities? Undoubtedly one thing is that nanotechnology will help to provide drinking water to regions of the world suffering from drought, as well as areas with contaminated water, including industrial technogenic waste water. Today, one third of the world’s population lives in countries with water shortages, and by 2025 this number will increase to two thirds.

According to the director of the SRI TP (Cyprus) Research Institute, Franc Smidt:” Applied research on the interaction of carbon nanostructures with environmental substances, including water, is very promising and can have a great economic effect. Functionalization of such structures, their activation by chemical and mechanical methods have already given new materials, new applications in heavy industry, in biotechnology and medicine. Hydrofullerenes, obtained and investigated in Ukraine, modified by CNT, obtained in the world’s leading laboratories, including in our laboratory, have given dozens of new directions of technological application. ” Not surprisingly, in recent years, a lot of reports and publications on breakthrough technologies in this field have appeared. Here is one of them.

In a computer experiment, American scientists led by Xiao Cheng Zeng from the University of Nebraska (USA) proved that associates of water molecules at ultra-low negative temperatures and ultrahigh pressures inside carbon nanotubes can crystallize in the form of a double helix that resembles the basis of life-the molecule deoxyribonucleic acid DNA). DNA is a double chain, twisted into a spiral. Each thread consists of “bricks” – from sequentially connected nucleotides. But the secondary structure of DNA is formed due to interactions of nucleotides (mostly nitrogenous bases) with each other, hydrogen bonds. A classic example of the secondary structure of DNA is the double helix of the DNA. Double DNA helix is the most widespread form of DNA in nature, consisting of two polynucleotide chains of DNA. 

It is necessary to understand that the water molecules are linked together by hydrogen bonds, the distance between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms is 96 pm, and between the two hydrogen – 150 pm. In the structure of ice, the oxygen atom participates in the formation of two hydrogen bonds with neighboring water molecules.  Each water molecule in the classical crystal structure of ice participates in 4 hydrogen bonds directed toward the vertices of the tetrahedron. At the center of this tetrahedron is an oxygen atom, in two peaks – on the hydrogen atom, the electrons of which are involved in the formation of a covalent bond with oxygen. The two remaining vertices are occupied by pairs of valence electrons of oxygen, which do not participate in the formation of intramolecular bonds. In the interaction of a proton of one molecule with a pair of unshared electrons from the oxygen of another molecule, a hydrogen bond appears, less strong than the intramolecular bond, but powerful enough to keep adjacent water molecules nearby. Scientists expected to see that water in nanotubes in all cases will form a thin tubular structure. However, the model showed that, with a tube diameter of 1.35 nm and a pressure of 40,000 atmospheres, the hydrogen bonds bent, leading to the formation of a double-walled spiral. The inner wall of this structure is twisted into four spirals, and the outer one consists of four double spirals, similar to the structure of the DNA molecule. Under different conditions, ice in nanotubes is simply “internal” tubes without any spirals.

If we assume that in the era of the origin of life cryolite clay rocks had in the structure of the nanotube, the question arises: could not the water sorbed in them serve as a structural basis (matrix) for DNA synthesis and information reading? Perhaps this is why the spiral structure of DNA repeats the spiral structure of water in nanotubes.

One of the latest news from the scientific world confirms that there can be no life without water. Serious evidence has emerged that proteins – complex and large molecules that fold into certain forms, allowing the flow of biological reactions – can not fold themselves. Folding of the protein is provided by much smaller molecules of water that surround the proteins, pulling and pushing them so that in a split second they curl up in a certain way. Dongping Jeong, head of the research team at Ohio State University, who made the discovery, called this work “a major step forward” in understanding the water-protein interactions over which scientists have been puzzling for decades. “For a long time, scientists have been trying to figure out how water interacts with proteins. This is a fundamental problem that has to do with structure, stability, dynamics and, finally, the function of protein, “said Jeong.” We believe that we now have strong direct evidence that on ultrashort time scales (picoseconds, trillionths of a second ) water modulates protein fluctuations. ” Computer modeling in the supercomputer center of Ohio allowed scientists to visualize what was happening: where water moved in a certain way, a protein collapsed a second later, as if a molecule of water were pushing the protein toward a change in shape. “Water can not arbitrarily change the shape of the protein,” Jeong explained. “Proteins can be folded and unfolded in several ways, depending on the amino acids that make up. We showed that the final form of the protein depends on two things: water and the amino acids themselves. Now we can say that on ultrafast time scales, the fluctuations on the protein surface are controlled by water fluctuations. Water molecules work together like a large network, controlling the movement of proteins. ”

Thus, science confirms the folk truth known to us: “water is the source of life”.

How can we live without miracles?

For many years, Japanese researcher Emoto Masaru conducted his observations and original experiments with water, confirming the phenomenal “sensitivity of water” and proved that a man with his positive or negative energy is able to influence the instantaneous reconstruction of clusters in the water structure.

Here’s how the water reacts to certain words:

Such crystals were recorded by the researcher after cryogenic freezing of water subjected to preliminary exposure.

Studies of the famous Japanese healer Masaru Emoto show that water is able to absorb, store and transmit human thoughts and emotions. The shape of the ice crystals formed when the water freezes depend not only on its purity, but also changes depending on what kind of music this water is played to, what images were shown and what words were said, and even what people thought about. Dr. Emoto believes that since water is capable of responding to a very wide spectrum of electromagnetic vibrations ( or Hado, as he calls them), it reflects the fundamental properties of the universe as a whole. The human and the whole  Earth consist of 70 percent water. Water is the link between spirit and matter. Therefore, Masaru Emoto is convinced, we can heal ourselves and the planet, deliberately cultivating the most important positive “vibrations” of love and appreciation. (Book by  E. Masaru The Hidden  Messages in Water)

Our body consists of about 70% water. In a day we consume up to 3 liters of liquid. Can we all learn to “radiate” good, spreading it the way that nature does? Suddenly we will become better and cleaner, and the world is more beautiful and harmonious …